Montenegro is in south-eastern Europe, on the Adriatic coast. It is bordered to the east and north by Serbia, to the west and northwest by Croatia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina and to the southeast by Albania. The Adriatic Sea, to the southwest, separates Montenegro from Italy. Podgorica is the largest
city and the country’s administrative capital, while Cetinje is the Royal Capital of the country. The total surface area of the country is approximately
13,812 km² and there are 293.5 km of coastline.
Montenegro evolved from the medieval states of Duklja and Zeta. During Turkish rule, Montenegro was granted some autonomy and full independence was
confirmed by the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1918, Montenegro became one of the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In a
referendum held on May 21, 2006, the citizens of Montenegro voted for independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
Montenegro’s magnificent beaches, the mountain region to the north, its rich cultural heritage and well-preserved natural environment provide excellent
conditions for the development of all types of tourism. Montenegro was a famous tourist resort location in the 1980s, but conflict in neighbouring
countries during the 1990s, marred its image as a tourist destination.
Montenegrin tourism began to recover at the beginning of 2000 and since then the number of tourists and overnight stays has significantly increased.
The culture of Montenegro evolved from the diverse influences on the country throughout its history. The Orthodox faith, the Slavs, central European
cultures, Islam and the maritime culture of the Mediterranean region (including the Venetian Republic) have all influenced the country in recent
Montenegro has many cultural and historic monuments, including many from the pre-Roman, Gothic and Baroque periods. Thousands of square meters of frescoes are contained in Montenegro’s medieval monasteries.
The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was admitted as a member of the International Olympic Committee in July 2007 and Montenegro participated for the
first time as an independent country in the Olympics of 2008, in Beijing. Water polo is one of the most popular sports in the country. In its first
appearance as an independent country, Montenegro won the 2008 European Water Polo Championship in Malaga. Other popular sports in Montenegro are
football, basketball and handball.
Montenegro was the first country to be declared an ecological state when, on September 20th, 1991, the Montenegrin Parliament adopted the “Montenegro
Ecological State Declaration.” This was incorporated into the Constitution of Montenegro in 1992.
Montenegro has four national parks: Durmitor, Biograd Forest, Lake Skadar and Lovćen.
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